It’s a typical morning in Hanoi. The streets are roaring with a never-ending flow of mopeds and the small alleyways are bustling with life. Western tourists are everywhere and the country is thriving.
Yet as they enjoy the vibrancy of this country, they gaze curiously at the decorated paraphernalia of the country’s founder, Ho Chi Minh, glorifying socialism as the way forwards for the Vietnamese people. The style and message of the posters do not seem remarkably different those seen in the DPRK, a country that may be otherwise a world away from modern Vietnam. Or is it?
an interesting time. At the end of February, the country will be welcoming two
special visitors, President Donald Trump of the United States, and North Korea
Kim Jong un. Here, they will be undertaking their second summit, hoping to
hammer out an arrangement to end the nuclear crisis which has plagued
hostilities between the two countries in recent years. But why of all places,
Vietnam? What’s the significance? Although clearly acting as a neutral
location, what makes it so special to the DPRK?
A brief history: North Korea and Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh and Kim Il Sung
may realize that Pyongyang and Hanoi go way back. Now seemingly on different
pathways, previously these two countries stood hand in hand. The historical
background speaks volumes. Having both suffered from occupation by Japan, they
both emerged from World War II as small nations divided in two by the cold war
climate. We have North Korea and South Korea, but we also had North Vietnam and
South Vietnam. One side was socialist, the other was aligned with the United
States. In each instance, the socialist side developed a common aim of
reunifying their country, expelling the “imperialists” and advocating a
revolution. Ho Chi Minh and Kim Il Sung were, inevitably, very close. Kim Il
Sung made regular visits to Hanoi and supported them in their struggle against ‘American
US-Vietnam reconciliation and partial estrangement from North Korea
times change, and history would treat both countries differently. Ho Chi Minh’s
bid to reunify Vietnam and overcome division was successful; Kim’s was not. Victory in the Vietnam war
permitted Hanoi to feel secure and eventually reconcile with the United States.
Pyongyang, still competing for legitimacy as the government of all Korea, did
not have that privilege. As a result, Vietnam was able to embrace economic
change and begin a dramatic transformation. The DPRK stood still, hesitant of
the political consequences of reform. Thus from the 1980s, the once ironclad
ideological ties between the two countries loosened, although they did not break
A socialist model for US rapprochement?
The DPRK embassy in Hanoi
But that did not signal the end for the DPRK and Vietnam. A month ago, foreign minister Ri Yong Ho would pay a visit to Hanoi. Here, he praised the country as a “model” for what North Korea could become as it seeks to economically develop, something to which Kim Jong un has increasingly prioritised. For the upcoming summit, this has given some people hope. Consequentially, as a socialist country and former partner of the DPRK who has been able to develop and embrace the world, Vietnam stand as a near perfect “middle ground” between the DPRK and the U.S. Although not all circumstances match, they stand as a good example for a way forwards, a careful reminder that not every socialist country needs to remain forever on antagonistic terms with Washington.
If you’re interested in the political history of Vietnam, you can join our Vietnam and South-West China Tour! Those seeking to learn more about the DPRK’s political history, particularly with regards to Chinese relations, may enjoy our DPRK Political Interest tour.
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